Big Bee is Dead

Thank you City of Calgary Councillors, and thank you 70.71% of Calgarians. You have single-handedly managed to decimate the bee population in my yard from about 20 bees down to 4. Way to Go! You must be so proud of yourself, standing before the world and watching those nasty weeds wither away, along with those dead bees. Congratulations.

I’ve been wondering what happened to Big Bee! He hasn’t been around my Delphiniums for a few days. Coincidentally, the green space behind my yard, the nearby soccer field, and surrounding beds near the children’s playground were sprayed with Trillion, 2-4-D, and Vantage.

You know what those pesticides do to bees?

This.

 

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Dead Big Bee – July 28, 2015

Fact Sheet on Trillion: http://www.flora.org/healthyottawa/trillion.htm

To save you the trouble of reading the whole article on this, Calgary people, let me summarize some of it for you here:

“Humans are much more heavily contaminated with 2,4-DCP than with 2,4-D. 2,4-DCP is considered a possible carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).”

“A study in the peer-reviewed journal “Environmental Health Perspectives”, noted that the commercial, off-the-shelf mixture of 2,4-D, Dicamba and Mecoprop may pose serious reproductive risks.”

“2,4-D, was recently found to be persuasively linked to cancers, neurological diseases and reproductive problems (Sears et al., Paediatrics and Child Health, April 2006). Since then, very recent research greatly strengthened the scientific links between non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and 2,4-D.”

See you in the Cancer Ward, you idiots.

Not a Happy Bee today.

ūüė¶

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Sunny Stonecrops for Sumptious Suppers

Hello Bee Friends,

How is your garden? Mine is full of Stonecrops blooming profusely and brightening up my whole yard. Stonecrops are wonderful plants because they love hot and dry, and that’s exactly what I have in my backyard. They are so pretty, bloom all summer, and are exceptionally easy to grow. This plant has grown everywhere I’ve planted it – in rich moist soil, in dry hot baked clay, in cracks between slate stepping stones, under other plants and in full sun.

And, most wonderful of all, this plant is loved not just by me, but by almost any living creature that visits my yard.

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Yesterday I counted one white moth,  one orange moth, three mid-size bees, one big bee, one wasp, several flying insects too quick and small to know what they were, and several ants all enjoying the yellow Stonecrop (Sedum Kamtschaticum) in the warm sunset Рand all at the same time. 

Bee enjoying Stonecrop (Sedum) July 10, 2015

Even the furry cat I am currently kitty-sitting this week loves to sit beside it, listening to the buzz of the bees. ūüėÄ

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Everybody loves Stonecrop

I have four different Stonecrops, but this particular variety of Stonecrop is the favourite of all. It propagates easily from cuttings just by plucking off a shoot and sticking it directly in the ground. It can also be grown from the seed it produces after flowering. It grows everywhere it is planted. It blooms from late spring to autumn, changing colour from this bright sunny yellow to a bronzy-orange, and finally to red. The leaves change colour too in the autumn. It contains itself well in a showy clump with the height ranging between 4-10 inches.

If you can only afford to plant one or two plants, I would highly recommend this one. Especially for a starting gardener as it is so easy to grow and looks beautiful all spring, summer and autumn. Bees love it, butterflies love it – Everybody loves Stonecrop! ūüėÄ

Do you have any Stonecrops growing in your garden?

Have a nice week, and Bee Nice to Bees! ūüėÄ

 

Raindrops on Roses, and so are the Bees

Hello Bee Friends,

I’ve been spending a lot of time in my yard watching the flowers bloom in our incredibly hot weather. Usually June brings the “June Monsoons” (as I fondly call them) but this year is dry, dry, dry. We finally got rain late last night and it was so wonderful to hear the patter of raindrops all night.

Today, the bees are busy because my rose is emitting the most wonderful fragrance with its profusion of blooms.

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Bee on Rose (Jun 30 2015)

 

The Bachelor Buttons are flowering too, and they love them.

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Bee on Bachelor Buttons

 

I mentioned before that I’m letting a patch of clover grow in my back yard. This is what it looks like right now. There are always about five or seven bees flitting from flower to flower.

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Patch of Clover in the middle of my lawn

Bee on Clover (Jun 2015)

 

Between my rose in the front yard and the pretty patch of clover in the back, they are very happy bees.

And that makes me very happy too. Do you have happy bees in your yard?

Have a nice week, and as always,

Bee Nice to Bees!

 

 

 

 

 

How to Make a Baby Bee

Hello Bee Friends,

Last week, I shared a video on baby bees emerging from their larval stage. This week, we take a step back. This amazing video shows how solitary bees make baby bees, how the mom bee carefully makes the nests and patiently fills it with lots of essential food (pollen) for the babies.

Please share this incredible video with your friends (and watch “The Solitary Bees” again on Vimeo here).

Have a great week!

Bee Nice to Bees! ūüėÄ

 

 

 

Pretty, Purple… and Perfect for Bees

Hello Bee Friends,

Here is another flower that bees love. I love it too, it’s a very showy and vigorous ground cover. I have three varieties of it, but the purple one has taken over. It’s Lamium, also sometimes called ‘Deadnettle’.

Lamium maculatum – also sometimes called Deadnettles.

According to gardening guides, Lamium likes shade but will tolerate full sun when grown in moist soil. I can tell you, it thrives in my garden with very poor dry soil in the full baking sun, and has spread from one plant that I planted five years ago to almost every area in my yard – front and back. ūüôā

I’ve planted all three varieties but the purple one has grown the best.

  • Lamium maculatum ‘White Nancy’ – silvery leaves and dense clusters of white flowers.
  • Lamium maculatum ‘Wootton Pink’ – striped variegated leaves and pale pink flowers in late spring to early summer.
  • Lamium maculatum ‘Orchid Frost’ – blue-green foliage and purple blooms April-June (but mine flowers almost until the end of August)

Bee with Lamium Hat

Look how the Lamium fits the head of the bee perfectly! like a hat ūüôā

How is your garden doing? Have you noticed any flowers that are favourites for the bees?

Have a nice week in your garden!

and … Bee Nice to Bees! ūüėÄ

 

 

 

Climate Change and Bees

Hello Bee Friends,

I am an avid learner. I love to explore new things; it’s one of the reasons why I love to garden, to get out hiking in the mountains, to walk in the woods, and to enjoy the beautiful and showy fragrant flowers. Every day is a new experience, and observation is a great teacher.

I’ve noticed, for instance, how incredibly windy it is here lately. We normally get wind in early spring with calm mornings and evenings. This year especially, the wind begins earlier in the morning, gets wicked gusts by the afternoon, and whips the trees and flowers until late evening. Our normally dry days are even drier. We had an early snow melt and much less rain than usual. A drive out of the city shows fields upon fields of dry brown grasslands.

Is this a result of Climate Change?

I’m taking a course through Coursera called “Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4C warmer world must be avoided”. It’s put on by the World Bank. The statistics it presents are both fascinating and discouraging. ¬†Is the world really warming? The Canadian Government did a study on the national average temperatures and precipitation and found that “The national average temperature for the year 2012 was 1.9¬įC above baseline average” [1]. Right now, our Canadian¬†Minister of Environment, Leona Aglukkaq, is in Berlin from May¬†17 to 20, 2015 to attend the informal G7¬†Climate Ministers’ meeting as well as the Petersberg Climate Dialogue. One of the actions¬†Canada plans is to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 30¬†percent below 2005¬†levels by¬†2030.

As a backyard gardener, I’m concerned about possible Climate Change because the dry weather is causing havoc with my yard. But….

What does this have to do with Bees, you ask?

A recent study by the University of East Anglia in Norwich, UK, suggests that a temperature increase of 1 degree C causes the male minor bees to come out of their hives nine days earlier. This is creating a disjoint between when flowers are ready for pollination, and when the pollinators are foraging. Female minor bees emerged fifteen days earlier. Instead of pollinating the orchid flowers, which had evolved to flower simultaneously with the male bees emergence from the hive, the male bees were now focusing on female bees instead. Prof Anthony Davy leading the study states: “we have shown that plants and their pollinators show different responses to climate change, and that warming will widen the timeline between bees and flowers emerging. If replicated in less specific systems, this could have severe implications for crop productivity.”[2]

images

Source: Public Domain

The World Bank’s report states the world is already 0.8 degrees warmer, and that is just a global average. Each country, each region is warming up differently. For example, not only is California suffering from a four year long drought and rationing of water, but its major almond crop also relies heavily on bee pollination. It¬†lost $445 million from 2005 to 2010 due to a loss of bees as a result of¬†Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). As you know, my bee friends, it’s not just almonds; honey bees directly or indirectly pollinate more than $15 billion worth of fruits, nuts and vegetables in the US alone. [3]

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Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_diseases_of_the_honey_bee

So few feral (wild) bees now exist that farmers “rent” hives from huge commercial outfits that drive¬†the bees on big trucks from crop to crop. For a few weeks in February or March,¬†1.6 million hives [4] – or 33 billion bees [11] – from all over converge on California‚Äôs Central Valley to pollinate these almond trees.

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Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Colony_collapse_disorder#/media/ File:Bee_migration_9045.JPG

This is disruptive for bees. Their normal local variety of nectar is replaced with a monocrop. They are carried long distances away from home. Last month, a semi-truck tipped over and spilled 13.7 million bees all over the highway in Washington state. Not only were the hives destroyed or damaged from the accident, but the bees were further subjected by a layer of foam the firefighters sprayed to “kill the insects for safety”. The damaged hives and dead bees were loaded into a dump truck for removal.¬†[5] In addition, trans-location of bees also increases risk of spreading diseases to other areas and has also been implicated in the spreading of the colony collapse disorder in domesticated hives, as well as in local wild bee populations. [9]

Evolution Mismatches

There are more than 20,000 species of bees and each type evolved to feed on local indigenous plants. We humans have domesticated bees now to perform pollination specifically to feed our ever growing population with fruits, vegetables and nuts. Since the 1930s in the UK alone, 97% of the prime wildflower grasslands that are prime pollinator habitats have been reduced.[6]  Bees who need to forage for food for most the year now find endless fields of monocultures with flowers that only bloom for a few weeks, while weeds which could sustain the bees are killed by herbicides.

Other species, besides bees, are being impacted by Climate Change. Trees, plants, birds, fish, and insects are showing synchronous mismatches due to increased temperatures and changing environments, such as:

  • Oak trees and winter moths, who’s caterpillars feed Great Tit birds.
  • Sea birds such as Puffins and the fish they eat, herrings.
  • Guillemots and Sand eels.
  • Red Admiral butterflies and Stinging Nettle.
  • Ophyrys sphegodes, a type of Orchid, and the solitary miner bee (Andrena nigroaenea). [6]

Bees need honey

According to Wayne Esaias from NASA, who is also a backyard beekeeper¬†[7], there is a reason why bees make honey. It’s not so that humans have sweet things to eat. The bees eat lots of honey so they can tense their muscles and generate heat to keep the queen and her egg larvae at 93 degrees F (about 34 C). This is essential for bee hive reproduction. If the temperature is too high or too low, the larvae will not develop into adult bees in the three weeks it takes them to mature. They will die. If bees are not able to store enough honey over the winter, they will not have the high energy food they need to eat to generate the heat to incubate the eggs, and will not have enough honey to feed the larvae when they hatch. No flowers means no honey for the bees [7]. No honey means no young bees.

Parasites

Increasing temperatures caused by Climate Change also affect the spread of bee viruses. This is the leading theory on Colony Collapse Disorder. Insects that normally would be killed by cold temperatures instead thrive due to the warmer climate. We see this in the widespread effect the Pine Beetles have had with the deforestation of Pine Trees. And we are seeing this now with Bees.

Two types of mites: Verroa Destructor and Nosea Apis/Ceranae thrive in warmer climates, and are thought to cause bee colony collapses. This is supported by a study published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B [3].

It all seems very discouraging. But many, many industries, organizations and people are working hard at finding some answers.

Industrial Solutions

These are some of the solutions that industry or research have come up with to help solve the loss of bees:

1. Freeze honeycombs.

According to the University of East Anglia, freezing honeycombs can kill off the mite Nosema ceranae. The study doesn’t say what effect this would have on the bees. I’m assuming the bees would freeze too. ūüė¶

2. Create mechanical bees.

Harvard University’s solution is to create “drone” bees;¬†mechanical robot bees that will pollinate the flowers by programming certain colors of flowers into their chips. [12] ¬†This doesn’t seem to help with “real” bee problems though.

3. Create transgenic bees.

Monsanto wants to insert a specific gene using an RNAi (RNA interference) strand directly into the bees genome. [4] The RNAi technology is called¬†Remebee (TM) and although it does no harm to the bee larvae, when consumed by a Varroa mite it sets off a self-destruct DNA trigger. The RNAi technology only works when it is aligned to match the targeted RNA, and since scientists have sequenced the genomes of the honey bee and Varroa mite they have identified exactly where they can apply genetic interference to kill the latter without impacting the former.” [10]. Theoretically, this RNAi strand will become systemic in the bee, and when the mite bites the bee, the RNAi will be sucked up along with the bee’s blood and kill the mite. According to Monsanto’s study, “there is no residual RNAi in bees or honey” (although I’m not sure I entirely believe this). ūüė¶

4. Let nature decide

Some proponents think that evolution will take care of the problem. They assert that bees are naturally adapting creatures, and will eventually develop resistance to withstand adversities such as 1) temperature increases, 2) parasites and viruses, 3) loss of habitat, 4) loss of vital food (over-consumption by humans of honey, bee pollen, and bee wax), and 5) pesticide toxicity.

I’m not so sure any of these solutions will solve the problem for the bees themselves. It may only solve the problem of loss of crops for humans.

It sounds like an insurmountable problem left to big industry. I’m sometimes completely overwhelmed thinking about the effects of global warming. But there are many little things we can all do individually to help.

So… What can all of us little, individual ‘backyard gardeners’ do?

A. We can make a more hospitable place for bees to thrive:

1. Let lawns grow and flower.

  • Plant bulbs like crocuses, bluebells, daffodils and snowdrops
  • Let natural clover flourish in patches
  • Plant low-growing thyme, it stays green all year and has beautiful tiny purple flowers
  • Replace some grass with wildflowers such as:¬†Field Scabious,¬†Teasel,¬†Meadow Cranesbill,¬†Cowslip,¬†Selfheal,¬†Greater & Lesser Knapweed,¬†Red Campion,¬†Betony,¬†Meadow Buttercup,¬†Ox Eye Daisy,¬†Musk Mallow
  • Check out:¬†http://www.buzzaboutbees.net/lawns.html for more suggestions.

2. Plant pollinator-friendly trees

  • Early blooming varieties such as: blueberries, cotoneaster, crabapple, and cranberry, willow and heather are all good for bees

3. Leave piles of logs to create nesting sites

  • these are excellent places for wild bees to nest

4. Eliminate the use of ALL pesticides

5. Eliminate the use of ALL herbicides (unless they are certified as bee-friendly)

B. We can help to reduce the effect of increased temperature due to Climate Change:

6. Reduce carbon emissions (drive less, walk more).

7. Get more informed on what Climate Change is, and how it will affect our Earth and the millions of species that co-habit here with us. Find out what your government is doing. Find out what your local businesses are doing to reduce their carbon footprints. Ask questions.

8. Ask your city mayor how and where you could plant ‘wild’ garden places in little used parks and/or in unused land owned by the City. Every tree planted will not only help the bees but help reduce greenhouse gasses and climate change.

  • “Every wildflower kept alive will help the honey bees survive.” (me)

9. Check out The World Bank’s course “Turn Down the Heat” on Coursera (I highly recommend all courses on Coursera)¬†or check out the information available at¬†http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/climatechange/publication/turn-down-the-heat

10. Learn of other detrimental effects of changing climates and indigenous and alien adaptations in this study [9].

Most importantly – Tell your friends. Tell your family. Especially, tell your Bee Friends.¬†Let’s all try to: Turn Down the Heat, and “Bee The Movement” to change! … and, as always…

Bee Nice to Bees ūüėÄ

References:

[1] https://www.ec.gc.ca/adsc-cmda/default.asp?lang=En&n=77842065-1

[2] https://www.uea.ac.uk/about/media-room/press-release-archive/-/asset_publisher/a2jEGMiFHPhv/content/climate-change-causes-bees-to-fall-out-of-sync-with-flowering-plants

[3] http://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/10688/20141126/climate-
change-threatens-bees-even-more-evidence.htm

[4] http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2015/05/building-bees/mann-text

[5] http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/honeybees-scattered-across-u-s-highway-after-truck-tips-1.3038165

[6] http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/nov/06/climate-change-is-disrupting-flower-pollination-research-shows

[7] http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Bees/bees3.php

[8] https://news.vice.com/article/heres-what-climate-change-could-do-to-
honey-bees

[9] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2010.00125.x/full

[10] http://www.21stcentech.com/agriculture-update-beeologics-save-honey-bees-colony-collapse-disorder/

[11] https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/migratory-beekeeping-mind-boggling-math/

[12] http://robobees.seas.harvard.edu/

The Garden Ape-iary

Hello Bee Friends,

It’s the May Long Weekend, Victoria Day, in Canada this coming weekend, and everyone is getting their camping gear ready, or flocking to garden stores. It’s the weekend every Canadian gardener waits for all year!!

In honour of that, here’s a cute video for you. This is what I feel like every time I go outside ūüėÄ

The Garden Ape – from Marc and Emma “Make your garden a wonderfully wild place to be, and maybe the garden ape will come for a visit!”

and maybe the Bees too!! ¬†…. Have a great weekend, and …

Bee Nice to Bees! ūüėÄ